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Hazard: Narragansett Friends' Meeting 361
history of political development and to a study of social forces in their
bearing upon that, he might have given the reader a clearer idea of the
goal toward which events were tending. But the work is so excellent in
itself, and is to such an extent superior to any of its predecessors, so far
as they relate to the early eighteenth century, that the reader must heart-
ily welcome it, and express the hope that Mr. McCrady will soon give to
the public the result of his researches into the period of the Revolution.
Herbert L. Osgood.
The Narragansett Friends' Meeting in the XVIII. Century, with a
chapter on Quaker Beginnings in Rhode Island. By Caroline
Hazard. (Boston and New York : Houghton, Mifflin and Co.
1899. Pp. vi, 189.)
The distinguished President of Wellesley College has thrown an ar-
row — not in Parthian malice, but in loyal affection — toward her native
Narragansett, as she leaves its laurel groves for the hills of Massachusetts.
The book is chiefly drawn from eight folio volumes of records belonging
to the mens' meeting, with three volumes treating of the doings of the
women, who were certainly an important constituent in the Friends' sys-
tem of living. She does not tell us where the original records are de-
posited. Besides this matter and the preliminary essay on early Rhode
Island Quakerism, there is an interesting reprint of the Quaker's Sea
Journal, Being a True Relation of a Voyage to New England, Performed
by Robert Fowler of the Town of Burlington in Yorkshire, Anno i6jp.
This tract was recently copied in the British Museum by Miss Hazard
with her own hand. It is an account of the voyage of the first consider-
able number of Quakers, and their vessel the Woodhouse which ran into
the harbor of Rhode Island in the summer of 1657.
The well-known story of Mary Dyer is treated at length. We are
not to forget that there was an irreconcilable conflict. The Puritans
drove out the Quakers, persecuting them according to the methods of
the time, in obedience to a high motive, as they conceived it. Ecclesi-
astical authority knew no toleration, except in the precincts of Roger
Williams, and his influence did not extend far as yet. On the other
hand, Mary Dyer went back voluntarily to her martyrdom. Our author
well says, " She had tasted the glories of martyrdom, and could not rest
till she was counted worthy to suffer to the end. If, in our modern
spirit, we inquire what her husband and children said to her sacrifice not
only of herself but of them, and the suffering and pain she brought them,
her grave face, with its rapt expression, rises to rebuke us. This life
was nothing, the next all, in those stern heroic times " (p. 38).
As in every conflict of the spirit with material force, there was a bane
and antidote, which could not be rendered in statement, nor controlled
by statute. A woman was whipped at Weymouth. " After whipping,
the woman kneeled down, and prayed the Lord to forgive those persecu-
tors ; which so touched a woman that stood by, that she said, ' surely she
could not have done this if it had not been by the spirit of the Lord.' "
362 Reviews of Books
The ground was furrowed and the seed was sown broadcast, when?
George Fox came to Rhode Island in 1672, to nourish and to garner in
the crop. Early in his visit he crossed the Bay to Narragansett and held
his first meeting, probably at Jireh Bull's block-house on Tower Hill.
Four years later, at the same place, the forces of Massachusetts and Con-
necticut mustered and moved out to crush the great tribe of Narragansetts
in the swamp fight. The bloody track of the Puritans and the gentle
way of the Quakers crossed on the beautiful slopes of Tower Hill. We
could not have a state without the one, nor any liveable society without
the equivalent of the other.
The Narragansett meeting extended its outposts over the whole South
County, and even to Stonington in Connecticut. Miss Hazard tells its
story in seven topical chapters. The aspirations of the spirit were heav-
enly, the meddling of the "overseers " was something worse than earthly.
To "Deal timely with such as walk Disorderly" meant mischief. The
Friends dominated Narragansett in the eighteenth century, and they
frowned upon the courts and legal methods, as they did upon all the
functions of an established state. Yet probably there was never a more
litigious community than was developed there.
About 1 76 1, they received a manuscript copy of the English book of
discipline, which became the basis of their action. There was a deep
beneath a deep in matters spiritual, which the "New Lights" claimed
■to fathom. Two Friends dealt with a man who "has lately joined in
their (the Separates' ) Worship so far as to Stand up with his Hatt off in
the Time of their Praying." Persecution built up the Friends as a sect ;
when it ceased their system waned.
We may regret that these records yield no more matter of direct his-
torical interest. The accomplished author has drawn out the best. It
is mostly an account of narrow domestic life and petty discipline. The
high spiritual ideal of Friends of the seventeenth century could not stem
the invading influence of a widening civilization.
W. B. W.
The Story of the Revolution. By Henry Cabot Lodge. (New
York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 1898. Two vols., pp. xv,
324; xii, 285.)
This work may be regarded as one of the latest contributions to the-
gratification of the prevailing taste in our country for military stories and
pictures. It is dedicated however to what may be considered even in
these warlike times as a special class: "The Army and Navy of the
United States, victors of Manila, Santiago, and Porto Rico, worthy suc-
cessors of the soldiers and sailors who under the lead of George Wash-
ington won American independence."
Neither service will expect to find the literary work of a civilian,
however accomplished he may be as a writer and a statesman, replete
with lessons in strategy and tactics or military policy. One should not